Continuing in my time-honored tradition of writing lengthy, dull essays about things I know practically nothing about, I wanted to ramble on for a while about my recent explorations of gendai haiku. A plea: even if you are not interested in my sketchy research, uninformed opinions, or pretentious literary analysis, you should at least skim down to read what are some pretty cool haiku. (By other people, needless to say.)
The Japanese term “gendai” simply means “modern,” but in the context of haiku it seems to carry the connotation of something more like “avant-garde” or “experimental” in English. Scott Metz, who is a pretty avant-garde American haiku poet himself, explains its origins on his blog “lakes and now wolves”:
“… influenced by changes in culture, society, economics, art, and literature—globalization—many different schools and strands of haiku developed during the 20th century. … Starting with a foundation centered more on realism and experience, 20th century haiku immediately expanded into areas such as politics, subjectivity, the avant-garde, feminism, urbanism, surrealism, the imaginary, symbolism, individuality, and science fiction: in general, free-form and experimental aesthetics. … The rigid limitations and conservatism of traditional techniques (namely 5-7-5 on/syllabets and the necessity of a kigo) were no longer absolutes for Japanese poets.”
— Scott Metz, for ku by
I first encountered the term “gendai” in an essay by Peter Yovu on the website of The Haiku Foundation, troutswirl, where several compelling examples of the genre are cited, such as:
bank clerks are fluorescent
from the morning
—Kaneko Tōta (trans. Makoto Ueda)
in front of the scarlet mushroom
my comb slips off
—Yagi Mikajo (trans. by Richard Gilbert)
from the sight
of the man who was killed
we also vanished
—Murio Suzuki (trans. by Gendai Haiku Kyokai)
(All examples from Peter Yovu, What is Your Reponse to Gendai Haiku?)
These examples seemed so exciting to me, so much more interesting than the standard Zen-nature-moment haiku, which I confess I’m getting a little weary of, that I went straight off to gendaihaiku.com, a website by Richard Gilbert, one of the most influential Western scholars and proponents of gendai. It contains profiles of some of the masters of gendai haiku, videotaped interviews with them, and examples of their work. There I found stuff like this:
realizing death as one color
in the snowy kiosk
for sale .?
–[Gilbert adds an explanatory note to this haiku:] … Kiosks filled with novel items began to appear in train stations throughout postwar Japan as the rail lines developed, and represented a new world, a new era of consumption and economic development. The resulting revolution spoken of here is domestic and cultural. A unique formal feature of this haiku is its last, fragmentary character na, which follows a question marker (ka), comma, and space, a uniquely creative contribution. Hovering between a statement of certainty and strong doubt (disbelief?), an indefinite solution is created by the orthography, causing this haiku to reflect back upon its topic, deepening the question.
cherry blossoms fall
— you too must become
water of spring
as water wetted
water, as is
–Hasegawa comments. Almost anything in this world can be wetted by water. However, the one thing that cannot be wetted in this way is water itself. Although water wets other things but cannot itself be wetted, I nonetheless intuit that the water of spring, uniquely, has a special quality in that it can be wetted — though it too is water.
There are clearly a lot of cultural and translation barriers to a non-Japanese fully understanding these poems — among other problems, I still don’t quite get why Tsubouchi wants me to be a hippo. But it struck me forcefully that these poets were clearly not interested in following the “rules” about haiku, particularly about haiku subject matter, that so many English haiku poets seem insistent on and fearful of breaking.
These poems aren’t about “haiku moments.” They have vivid and compelling images; but they’re allusive, elusive, experimental, full of large ideas — not just tiny moments of awareness. I say this not to cast aspersions on tiny moments of awareness, just to point out that in the culture where haiku developed, there is apparently a much broader conception of what constitutes a “real” haiku than in our own.
In an interview with Robert Wilson, Gilbert points out that gendai haiku poets are not breaking off decisively from the classical haiku tradition, that haiku has always been about referencing the past while making accommodation to the present:
“Gendai haiku partake of a tradition and culture in which, unlike that of the historical Judeo-Christian West, nature and culture were not extensively polarized. So in gendai haiku exists an invitation to the present and a future, in congruence with the past. This congruency is also an uprooting, accomplished via expansive and often experimental avant-garde language and techniques. Yet the old is likewise held in the new, in plying the form. The key to haiku, what makes it a brilliant literature, is that haiku cut through time and space …
“The gendai haiku tradition partakes of Bashō’s ‘world of mind,’ and like Bashō and other accomplished classical masters, extends a literary conversation. … [H]aiku are never merely singular works of art, they swim in an ocean of poetry, in which any given term (e.g. kigo or kidai) and image has multiple reference to over 1000 years of literary history (poems, historical events, personages, authors, myths, etc.). …”
— Richard Gilbert, “A Brilliant Literature: Robert Wilson Interviews Professor Richard Gilbert”
I would add that haiku, in its several hundred years of existence, has undergone many changes in style and approach and has never been as limited in subject matter and structure as many Westerners seem to believe. A lot of what we now think of as “proper” haiku (the nature observation, the Zen moment of enlightenment) was a late-nineteenth-century development and actually, ironically, owed a lot to the realism of Western poetry, which was just beginning to be known in Japan at the time. Haruo Shirane, in his great essay Beyond the Haiku Moment, points out that early haiku were just as likely (or more so) to concern historical or literary or entirely imaginary subjects as the personal experience of the poet:
Basho traveled to explore the present, the contemporary world, to meet new poets, and to compose linked verse together. Equally important, travel was a means of entering into the past, of meeting the spirits of the dead, of experiencing what his poetic and spiritual predecessors had experienced. In other words, there were two key axes: one horizontal, the present, the contemporary world; and the other vertical, leading back into the past, to history, to other poems. … Basho believed that the poet had to work along both axes. To work only in the present would result in poetry that was fleeting. To work just in the past, on the other hand, would be to fall out of touch with the fundamental nature of haikai, which was rooted in the everyday world. Haikai was, by definition, anti- traditional, anti-classical, anti-establishment, but that did not mean that it rejected the past. Rather, it depended upon the past and on earlier texts and associations for its richness.
— Haruo Shirane, Beyond the Haiku Moment
An interesting historical note about this movement is that gendai haiku poets underwent significant persecution at the hands of the Japanese government during World War II, as is chillingly explained in an article in the haiku journal “Roadrunner” (again, by Richard Gilbert):
“[B]y the 1920s … the ‘New Rising Haiku movement’ (shinkô haiku undô) wished to compose haiku on new subjects, and utilize techniques and topics related to contemporary social life. These poets frequently wrote haiku without kigo (muki-teki haiku), and explored non-traditional subjects, such as social inequity, utilizing avant‑garde styles including surrealism, etc. …
“During the war, over 40 New Rising Haiku poets were persecuted; they were imprisoned and tortured, and some died in prison. … [The director of a haiku society associated with the government stated:] ‘I will not allow haiku even from the most honorable person, from left-wing, or progressive, or anti-war, groups to exist. If such people are found in the haiku world, we had better persecute them, and they should be punished.’
“… According to the fascist-traditionalists, to write haiku without kigo meant anti-tradition, which in turn meant anti-Imperial order and high treason. …
“One sees that, historically, ‘freedom of expression’ in the gendai haiku movement was not an idle aesthetic notion. … The liberal, democratic spirit and freedom of expression exhibited by the New Rising Haiku poets remains at the core of gendai haiku.”
— Richard Gilbert, “Gendai Haiku Translations“
In this same article Gilbert and Ito Yuki offer translations of some haiku by this generation of persecuted poets, all of which, naturally, are a little on the dark side — but exhibit the same freshness of approach as my previous examples:
clean kills: in a night war a canyon a crab
– Hirahata Seito
the shriek of artillery
birds beasts fish shellfish
— Saito Sanki
leaving a withered tree
being shot as a withered tree
— Sugimura Seirinshi
in the forehead
the killing flower blooms
— Saito Sanki
(Translations by Richard Gilbert and Ito Yuki, from “Gendai Haiku Translations“)
If you’re starting to wonder if all gendai haiku are dark and depressing…fear not. A wonderful place to sample a wide variety of gendai haiku is Blue Willow Haiku World, the website of the fine Japanese-American haiku poet Fay Aoyagi, which features both her own haiku and that of modern Japanese haiku poets in her own translations. A few examples:
he comes and whispers
in a dancer’s ear
from “Gendai no Haiku” (Modern Haiku), edited by Shobin Hirai, Kodansha, Tokyo, 1996
— posted by Fay Aoyagi on Blue Willow Haiku World June 9, 2010
I prefer a comic play
with a quiet plot
from “Gendai no Haiku” (Modern Haiku), edited by Shobin Hirai, Kodansha, Tokyo, 1996
— posted by Fay Aoyagi on Blue Willow Haiku World June 7, 2010
— Keishu Ogawa
from “Gendai Haiku Hyakunin Nijukku” (“Modern Haiku: 20 Haiku per100 Poets”), edited by Kazuo Ibaraki, Kiyoko Uda, Nenten Tsubouchi, Kazuko Nishimura, You-shorin, Nagano, 2004
Fay’s Note: “sôda-sui” (bubbled/carbonated water) is a summer kigo.
One can write a Japanese haiku without a subject word. Most of time, the subject is “I,” the poet. But this one, I am not sure. I see two people (somehow, a male and female students) studying together. It is a summer time.
Between them, cans (or glasses) of bubbled water… But the translation can be
— posted by Fay Aoyagi on Blue Willow Haiku World June 6, 2010
So far I’ve been discussing this genre as a strictly Japanese phenomenon. But the inevitable question is: Are there “gendai haiku” in English?
Richard Gilbert responds:
“I’m not even sure [the term ‘gendai’] should be used for any haiku natively-written in English. For instance, I would not say so-and-so a haiku is ‘gendai’ as a matter of style, unless I meant it was similar in style to that of a known gendai poet of Japan … As of yet, we do not have a ‘gendai-like’ movement in English-language haiku poetry, though there are some poets writing innovative works. … It’s my thought that we can learn and appreciate, though innovate with autonomy.”
— Richard Gilbert, “A Brilliant Literature: Robert Wilson Interviews Professor Richard Gilbert“
I’m planning to write a post soon about some English-language haiku poets who are innovating in what seem to me gendai-like ways — including Metz and Gilbert themselves. In the meantime, I’d welcome comments on these poems and this poetic phenomenon: How do you feel about haiku in this style? Do you think there is a similar movement in English? Should I just stick to haiku and leave the dry academic treatises to the experts? Let your opinion be known.
25 thoughts on “Gendai haiku”
Great article and yes, I’ve bought a ticket on the Gendai Haiku train too. It’s a revelation to see what contemporary Japanese haiku looks like and how we (english language haiku) seem to be, well, stuck.
You might be interested in the work of Chris Leibow and Joseph Massey.
Thanks, Nicole. I have been reading Chris for a while and will check out Joseph.
Try John Sandbach as well
Sorry I keep adding on here, but there’s also a wonderful book I just bought on Amazon called, “Far Beyond the Field: Haiku by Japanese Women” compiled and translated by Makoto Ueda.
It gives an overview of the haiku written by women over the centuries and what really struck me is how exciting and contemporary their haiku reads — even the ones from the 1600s. Amazing book.
Thanks for mentioning this, Nicole, it sounds fantastic — I read a really interesting essay (interview with someone) not long ago about the role of women in the Japanese haiku scene, historically and in the present … wish I could remember the link.
is it this article/interview?:
Women & Postwar Gendai Haiku: From Invisibility to Leadership
Udo Kiyoko, Modern Haiku Association President talks with
Richard Gilbert and Itō Yūki
i too highly recommend *Far Beyond the Field*; it’s one of the very best Japanese haiku anthologies one can read, me thinks. the flip side of that anth (since it is devoted solely to Japanese women) is Ueda’s other anth, *Modern Japanese Haiku* (University of Toronto Press), devoted to 20th c Japanese male haijin. the two, together, make an astounding array of work (you will have to find MJHaiku used though as it is out of print).
it’s really cool to see you and others interested in modern/contemporary haiku. i hope it will inspire others.
Yes, that’s the one — thanks, Scott! I will definitely look for “Far Beyond the Field.”
Thanks so much for commenting, I really admire your work in this field. It seems to me that there is a fair amount of experimentation out there, at least in cyberspace — may not be percolating its way through to most of the journals yet. It will be interesting to see if a full-blown gendai-ish movement develops in ELH.
Well, dangit, you keep pushing my haiku horizons! I’m not sure I understand gendai (I’m pretty sure I don’t understand it) but it’s exciting. I’m pretty sure I’m going to attempt it.
Oh, and I’m pretty sure it’ll be a struggle!
No way, Steve…you already have the requisite bizarre outlook on life. 🙂
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Oh, Melissa – another eye-opener: your article on gendai-haiku. Something like this make me feel very optimistic on behalf of haiku – another great tool in the box. Thanks for doing all this digging and making it available in your own way.
Thanks, Johannes! Glad you enjoyed the post.
I like Hasegawas ideas but wonder why he needs to
explain his micropoems – maybe they’re modern
haibun or something?
In this case he may have been responding to a specific question asked by an interviewer, but I also think that the Japanese are not as averse to the idea of explaining or providing commentary on haiku as we tend to be. In reading Abigail Freedman’s The Haiku Apprentice I note that she says (in chapter 6, “Fog on the Lake”), following a discussion of haibun, “It is also common in Japan to add context to haiku by providing a few interpretive lines following the text.” She then provides a number of contemporary examples, and also notes that her Japanese haiku master, Kuroda Momoko, “included interpretive notes” when she sent Freedman a batch of her haiku to read. Sometimes these notes (not just Momoko’s, which you might suspect are just an instructor’s way of assisting a student) provide background information about the situation described in the haiku, sometimes they contain notes on composition, such as the choice of kigo, sometimes they are more in the nature of literary analysis. You are probably on the right track in mentioning haibun — although obviously some in the West write haibun, there is a much stronger tradition of it in Japan and I think Japanese are less likely to think of haiku and prose as completely separate and incompatible.
Translation is another factor. Not only from one language and its cultural matrix to another. But, also translation from novel places in consciousness. New worlds of experience might need their interlingual rendition into a more common understanding. Fine it would be if this were not the case. To ku so plainly that anyone could catch the explanatory dream. In the absence of that capricious skill, needs must, the supplementary info offered by haibun (haikai writing as annotation)? Better a glimpse than nothing.
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Thanks much. 🙂
Great Article ! Thanks so much. I am tracing through your references.
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Melissa, this article was enjoyably educating. Thanks for writing it.
Dear Melissa, Your article has been a real eye-opener! Thank you for sharing it. I have touched on gendai haiku several times via Richard Gilbert’s website, “Far Beyond the field”, “Ink Zero” (a collection of experimental haiku by Richard Gilbert and Don Baird), etc., but I found it difficult to get the deeper feeling (understanding) of gendai haiku. (not saying I do now! 🙂 ).
I feel this article is a leap forward which gives the interested haiku student a stepping stone into gendai haiku. This much more comprehensible article including historic, cultural info and wonderful examples was just what I needed.
I very much look forward to reading your planned post about some English-language haiku poets who are innovating in what seems to you gendai-like ways — including Metz and Gilbert themselves.